The Five Types of Hukm Shari (Shari’ Rules)

 Extract from the book Fikr Islami by Sheikh Mohammad Mohammad Isma’eel

Al-hukm ush-Shar’i (divine rule) is the Legislator’s speech pertaining to the actions of men. Thus al-hukm ush-Shar’i is established by the proof of the speech; and it is identified through understanding the meaning of the speech. The Legislator’s speech is that which came in the Kitab and Sunnah, of orders and prohibitions. Therefore, understanding of the hukm Shar’i depends on understanding the Kitab and Sunnah, for they are the origin of Legislation and the source of ahkam (rules).

However, it is not (true) that every Legislator’s speech must be undertaken, and there is a punishment for its negligence; or it is forbidden to undertake and there is a punishment for doing it. Rather, this depends on the type of speech. Therefore, it is sin and insolence against the deen of Allah (swt) that a person rushes to state that this (matter) is fard, just because he read a verse or a hadeeth that indicates the request of performing it; or he rushes to give a fatwa (legal view) that this (matter) is haram, just because he read an ayah or a hadeeth which indicates the request of abandoning it.

The Muslims are afflicted, these days, with many of such people who rush to make (matters) halal and haram, just by reading the order or the forbiddance in an ayah or a hadeeth. It is often that these people are from amongst those who discovered that they understood before they understand and it is rare that they are from amongst those who understand the meaning of legislation (tashree’). Therefore it is necessary to understand the type of the Legislator’s speech before giving the opinion in the type of the hukm shar’i. In other words, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the hadeeth or the ayah in a legislative way, and not only linguistically, so as the Muslim does not fall in the error of prohibiting what Allah (swt) allowed and allow what Allah (swt) prohibited.

The Legislator’s speech is understood through the text and the connotations (qaraa’in) that determine the meaning of the text. It is not true that every order indicates obligation, and nor does forbiddance indicates prohibition. This is because the order could indicate preference (nadb) or allowance (ibahah); and forbiddance could also indicate dislike (karahah).

When Allah (swt) says:
“Fight against those…” [TMQ At-Tauba:29], He orders with Jihad. The order in this ayah is an obligation (fard), which Allah (swt) persecutes for its negligence. However, the fact that it is an obligation does not come from the order alone. It rather came from other connotations (qaraa’in) that indicated this order is a decisive request of doing the action.

This connotation is other texts, such as His (swt) saying in another ayah:
“If you do not go forth He will afflict you with a painful doom.” [TMQ At-Tauba:39]

And when He (swt) says:
“Do not come close to adultery (zina).” [TMQ Al-Israa:32], He (swt) forbids adultery.

The forbiddance in this ayah is prohibition of adultery, which Allah punishes for doing it. However, the fact that it is haram did not come from the form of forbiddance only. It rather came from other connotations (qaraa’in) that indicated this forbiddance is a decisive request of abstaining from the action This connotation (qareena) is other texts, such as His (swt) saying in the same ayah:
“Lo! It is an abomination and an evil way.” [TMQ Al-Israa:32]

And His (swt) saying in another ayah:
“The adulterer and the adulteress, lash each one of them with a hundred strikes.” [TMQ An-Nur:2]

When Rasool ul-Allah (saw) says:
“The collective prayer (salat ul-Jama’ah) is preferable to the individual prayer with twenty seven degrees.”, he orders with the Jamaa’ah prayer, even though the request did not come in the order form. When he (saw) also says:
“I forbade you from visiting the graves. Look, go visit them.”, he orders with visiting the graves. However, this order or request in these two ahadeeth is mandoob and not fard. The fact that it is mandoob comes from other connotations (qaraa’in), such as his (saw) silence (sukoot) about some people who prayed individually, and his (saw) silence (sukoot) about some people who did not visit the graves. This indicated that it is indecisive request. And when the Rasool (saw) says:
“Who is better off and did not marry, he is not one of us.”

And when we read the forbiddance of the Prophet (saw) from ascetism (tabattul), ie from abstaining from marriage in the hadeeth from Samrah:

“The Prophet (saw) forbade from ascetism.”, we find the Rasool (saw) forbids from abstaining from marriage for the better off (rich) person in the first hadeeth, and he forbids from abstaining from the marriage in and absolute way in the second hadeeth. This does not mean that non marriage in absolute way (the unrestricted abstention from marriage) is haram. This forbiddance rather indicates that it is disliked (makrooh) and not haram.

The fact that it is only makrooh comes from other connotations (qaraa’in), such as the silence (sukoot) of the Prophet (saw) from some rich people when he (saw) knew they did not marry, and his (saw) silence from some of the Sahabah when they did not marry.

And when He (swt) says:
“But when you have left the state of pilgrimage, then go hunting (if you will).”
[TMQ Al-Maidah:2]

“If the (Friday) prayer ended, then disperse/walk in the ard (land).”
[TMQ Al-Jumua:10]

He (swt) orders with hunting after dissolving of ihram (state of hajj), and orders with disperse (in the land) after the (Friday) prayer. However, this order does not indicate that hunting after dissolving of ihram (ritual consecration) is fard and nor it is mandoob; it rather indicates it is mubah. The fact that it is mubah came from another concatenation (qareenah), which is that Allah (swt) ordered with hunting after ihram (ritual consecration) where He forbade of it before (starting) ihram (ritual consecration). He (swt) also ordered with dispersing (in the land) after the Friday prayer after He forbade of it at the (time of) Friday prayer. That concatenation (qareenah) indicated that this order was for ibahah (allowance). Thus the hunting in this case and dispersing in that case are mubah.

Therefore, cognizance of the type of the hukm for the text depends on understanding the text in a legislative (tashree’i) way, by linking the text with the concatenations (qaraa’in) that explains the meaning of the speech in the text. From this, it becomes clear that the ahkam sharee’ah are of many types.

It appears from examining all the texts and all the ahkam that the ahkam sharee’ah are five (types). The fard which means wajib (obligation), the haram which means al-mahdhoor (prohibited), the mandoob, the makrooh and the mubah. This is because the Legislator’s speech, is either a request of (doing) an action, or a request of leaving (an action), or giving choice between doing or leaving. The request (talab) might be decisive or indecisive. If the request of doing the action was decisive, then it is the fard. If it was not decisive, then it is the mandoob (preferable). If the request of abstaining from (the action) was decisive, then it is the haram (prohibited); and if it was indecisive, then it is the makrooh (disliked). The request of (giving) choice is the mubah (allowed).

Thus, the ahkam sharee’ah are only five which are: the fard, the haram, the mandoob, the makrooh and the mubah.

3 Responses

  1. If you want to read a reader’s feedback🙂 , I rate this article for four from five. Detailed info, but I have to go to that damn google to find the missed bits. Thanks, anyway!

  2. BIMBINGAN SPIRITUAL “ MUSTIKA IMAN “ {MA’RIFATULLOH } CIPADU HOLISTIC CENTER
    CIPADU HOLISTIC CENTER mengajak atau menghimbau semua kaum muslimin dan muslimat di mana saja berada untuk menuju dan sekaligus mencapai kesempurnaan iman. Ilmu Kesempurnaan Dunia Akhirat Yang CIPADU HOLISTIC CENTER ajarkan merupakan suatu tuntunan { Merupakan ajaran Do’a wirid setelah sholat fardhu maupun setelah sholat tahajud } agar kita semua dapat mengenal Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya { MA’RIFATULLOH } sehingga ibadat yang kita lakukan diterima oleh Allah (tidak sia-sia belaka) dan kita mendapat ridho Allah dari dunia sampai akhirat. Sejalan dengan perkembangan kehidupan beragama yang semakin baik di Indonesia, maka makin banyak orang yang mengaku dirinya beriman kepada Tuhan YME. Mereka mengakui bahwa Allah itu Mahakuasa dan Mahasegala-galanya, mereka mengakui bahwa mereka itu diciptakan, digerakkan, diberi nikmat dan rejeki oleh Allah.
    Tetapi sayangnya pengakuan seperti itu kebanyakan hanyalah pengakuan di mulut saja atau boleh dikatakan sebagai pengakuan yang bohong belaka, karena tidak diikuti oleh tindakan yang mencerminkan iman kepada Allah.{ Hal ini terbukti dengan banyaknya saudara2 kita yang mendapatkan amanah untuk memimpin bangsa ini tetapi berkhianat, serta kenyataan di tengah2 masyarakat kita yang belum bisa menempatkan agama sebagai paugeraning urip / pegangan hidup” Red} Mereka mengaku beriman dan bertaqwa kepada Allah namun kenyataanya tidak di wujudkan dalam praktek kehidupan secara nyata. Mayoritas yang terjadi adalah menjadikan iman dan taqwa ini seperti akan membuat gado-gado. Perintah Alloh yang semestinya di tinggalkan malah di jalankan, yang semestinya di jalankan malah di tinggalkan dll. Prilaku orang seperti ini banyak hal yang melatar belakangi. Ada yang memang karena tidak tahu,ada yang pura-pura tidak tahu, ada yang tidak mau tahu, ada juga yang memang sengaja melanggar.
    Fakta dan kenyataan juga telah menunjukkan bahwa Manusia Islam di Indonesia BAGUS secara KUANTITI, tetapi RENDAH secara KUALITI. Kita semua bahkan dunia mengakui, kalau Negara kita bukan Negara islam,tetapi dengan jumlah penduduk yang beragama islam terbesar di dunia. Kita semua bahkan dunia, juga mengakui kalau jamaah Haji terbanyak di dunia dalam setiap tahunnya adalah dari Indonesia, Bahkan saat ini apabila kita akan menunaikan ibadah haji, kemudian melakukan pendaftaran pada tahun 2011, maka akan di berangkatkan ke tanah suci nanti tahun 2016. Ini artinya apabila semua calon haji yang telah mendaftarkan diri sampai hari ini saja , kemudian di berangkatkan sekaligus dalam 1 periode, maka masjidil haram di tanah suci itu tidak akan sanggup menampung jamaah calon haji dari Indonesia. Semenjak kita sekolah SD selalu di beri tahu, kalau tujuan menunaikan ibadah haji adalah untuk Menyempurnakan iman. Kalau jumlah jamaah haji dari Indonesia per tahun rata – rata 250.000 orang saja, berarti semestinya jumlah manusia Indonesia yang imannya sempurna per tahun bertambah 250.000 0rang per tahun. Tetapi lagi-lagi kita perlu melihat dan mengakui sebuah kenyataan, kalau Faktanya adalah jemaah haji kita BAGUS secara KUANTITI tetapi RENDAH secara KUALITI. Hal tersebut terbukti dengan banyaknya saudara islam kita yg berurusan dengan hukum { KPK } misalnya. Sedangkan islam tak pernah mengajarkan untuk jadi koruptor. Hal-hal yang saya sampaikan di atas adalah salah satu contoh kecil yang tidak perlu di perdebatkan. Tetapi harus di akui bahwa artinya di sini ada sesuatu hal yang salah. Itu semua adalah sebuah kenyataan yang harus kita akui kemudian kita carikan solusinya. Menjadi kuwajiban kita bersama sebagai pemeluk agama islam untuk menjadikan diri kita serta saudara islam kita sebagai manusia
    { khususnya yang ada di Indonesia }, islam yang BAGUS secara KUANTITI serta BAGUS juga secara KUALITI. Sehingga InsyaAlloh, kalau 88% penduduk Indonesia yg beragama islam ini bagus kualitas pengamalan agamanya, maka bukan mustahil lagi kalau Bangsa kita suatu saat akan mampu menjadi Mercusuar dunia.
    Sebetulnya jika kita perhatikan baik-baik, banyak petunjuk yang menyiratkan tentang kuwajiban kita untuk mngenal Alloh { MA’RIFATULLOH } baik petunjuk yang berasal dari Allah sendiri dalam Al Quran, maupun yang berasal dari orang-orang tua kita zaman dulu. Dalam kitab suci Al Quran surat Al Hadiid ayat 4 Allah berfirman : “Wahuwa maakum aenama kuntum wallahu bima ta maluna basir”, yang artinya : “Di mana kamu ada Aku ada, dari itu Aku melihat saja apa yang kau lakukan”. Lalu ada pula firman Allah yang berbunyi : “Wanahnu akroba illaihi min hablil warid”, yang artinya : “Aku lebih dekat kepadamu daripada kedua urat nadimu”, atau : “Wallahu maakum”, yang artinya : “Aku bersamamu”. Juga dalam Al Hadist, Nabi Besar Muhammad SAW bersabda : “Man arofa napsahu fakod arofa robbahu”, yang artinya : “Ketahuilah dahulu dirimu, nanti kamu akan mengetahui Tuhanmu”. Arti sabda ini sesuai pula dengan kata-kata yang diucapkan oleh orang-orang tua dari tanah Jawa dengan Bahasa Jawa : “Nek kowe arep weruh akune, goleki disik ingsune”. Demikian pula orang-orang Sunda (Jawa Barat) mengatakan : “Ari Allah nu teu bukti disebutkeun wujud pasti weleh medem teu kaharti lamun can nyaho kadiri”.
    “Ilmu Kesempurnaan Dunia Akhirat” (IKDA) atau “Mustika Iman”, Bertujuan membentuk manusia yang sempurna imannya, lahir batinnya dan mendapat ridho Allah dari dunia sampai akhirat.
    Semua itu bertujuan untuk :
    1. Mengenal Tuhan { Alloh swt } 2. Menjaga diri dengan sempurna baik di dunia dan akhirat 3. Menolong sesama 4. Mengetahui jalan mati.
    Atau dengan kata lain, pelajaran-pelajaran ini bertujuan untuk mengenal dan mencintai Tuhan serta untuk mencintai sesama tanpa memandang bangsa maupun agama.Bagi anda yang berminat untuk ikut mempelajari ILMU KESEMPURNAAN DUNIA AKHIRAT “ MUSTIKA IMAN “ Silahkan segera hub alamat kami
    Alamat : CIPADU HOLISTIC CENTER / CHC jl Ciledug raya gang H. Bhotet Rt 04/05 Pisangan Kreo , Larangan. +/- 40 meter di belakang POM Bensin Kreo Batas. Telp 021 933.40.413 / 36 38. 22 23 info lengkap di www. multiterapi. blogspot.com
    Syarat dan ketentuan bagi peserta : 1}. Membeli Buku panduannya sebesar Rp. 41.000 ; 2}. Melakukan Registrasi pendaftaran di CHC dengan biaya infaq 3}. Selalu Mengikuti bimbingan spiritualnya di CHC dengan biaya infaq / Amal. 4}. Melakukan pembersihan kalau sudah sampai saatnya.
    Wassalam……..

  3. ass..salam ikda,,sy adalah salah satu murid bpk.H.M.Yusuf Suparta..pembersihan pd th.1986.. sy jg salah seorang pembina ikda didaerah serdang kemayoran jakpus..sy senang ada ikhwan yg mau tuk mnyampaikan suatu kebenaran n ilmu yg bermanfaat bgi sesamanya..sy hanya ingin menyampaikan saran kpd anda untuk tidak memuat tulisan ato menghapus (apabila sudah dimuat) topik tentang pelajaran mengenai “ILHAM2 DARI ALLOH” DAN “LAPORAN HASIL GUNA PELAJARAN” dikrnakan ada beberapa pemahaman atau cerita yg dapat MEMANCING DAN MEMBUAT OPINI PUBLIK terhadap ikda menjadi lain..demi tuk kebaikan kita bersama n mengantisipasi sgl kemungkinan yg bisa timbul dikemudian hari..atas sgla perhatiannya sy ucapkan terimakasih..wass.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: